Critical Mass in Networks: part III cases

PART III: CASES-STUDIES

Appendix I: The Occupy Wallstreet Case

Focus
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Occupy_movement_protest_locations)
Months before the Occupy movement began, the Spanish Movimiento 15-M (initiator), begun demonstrating on May 15th against the economic crises ;close to the local and regional elections of May 22th. They planned to hold events in many nations on October 15, 2011 (reaching in a world-wide critical mass).

Roles:
2011

Organizers:
July 13th – Adbusters makes the initial proposal for a peaceful demonstration to Occupy Wall Street (OWS).

Mavens:
August 2nd – ‘New Yorkers Against Budget Cuts’ chose August 2 to incorporate a ‘General Assembly’ with another group holding a strategy session for OWS. Afterwards, these two groups ‘gather[ed] into working groups to plan for the September 17 event’.

Salesmen:
August 23th – The hacktivist group Anonymous encourages its’ followers to take part in the protest.

Mass
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_Occupy_Wall_Street)
September 17th – The first day of the OWS gathering. An estimated 1,000 people attend on the first day in Zuccotti Park.

Roles:

Keyplayers:
September 19th – Keith Olbermann, of Current TV, becomes the first major journalist to focus on the protests.
September 21th – Major newspapers including The Guardian and The New York Times begin reporting on the protests.
September 26th – Noam Chomsky spoke out in support of the OWS protests. That evening, filmmaker Michael Moore addressed the crowd at Zuccotti Park.

Reciprocators:
September 27th – Over 700 Continental and United pilots, joined by additional pilots from other Air Line Pilots Association (ALPA) carriers, demonstrate in front of Wall Street.
September 27th – An OWS afternoon march merged with a rally by Postal workers protesting against a five-day delivery week.
September 28th – The board of the local union of the Transport Workers Union of America (TWU Local-100) voted to support Occupy Wall Street.

Brokers:
September 27th – NYC Councilman Charles Barron visited Zuccotti Park and announced his support for OWS. Later, Dr. Cornel West spoke at the park and opened the daily General Assembly.
October 13th – The crowd listening to Tom Morello of Rage Against the Machine.

Openness (-Critical Mass)

(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_Occupy_Wall_Street)

Boundary Spanners:

October 15th – Thousands of people of OWS protested at the Manhattan U.S. Armed Forces recruiting station.
October 15th – Critical mass is reached as global protests are listed in 951 city’s in 82 countries (see next page: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/15_October_2011_global_protests).

October 16th – President Obama expressed support to the protesters and the White House issued a statement saying Obama is working for the interests of the 99%.
November 17th – More than 30,000 demonstrated in and around Zuccotti Park, Union Square, Foley Square, the Brooklyn Bridge, and other locations through the city.

2012

Peripheral specialists:

January 8th – In a Financial Times series on ‘rethinking capitalism’ after the financial crisis, John Plender argues that popular acceptance of capitalism has waned for good reason: the widening of inequality. Former U.S. Treasury Secretary, Lawrence Summers considers that such a series in the Financial Times would have been unimaginable only five years ago.
March 24th – During a planned civil disobedience, ‘mock corporate polluters’ set up a shop in front of United Nations headquarters to show their false solutions to the climate crisis; dressed as corporate executives they ‘occupied the planet’.

2013
Chameleons:
June 1st – Re-Occupy Wall Street had over 5,000 Turkish Occupiers and about 500 OWS Occupiers that showed up in Zuccotti Park throughout the day to show solidary between Occupy Gezy and Occupy Wall Street. It was planned that the protests would span from that day onward to October. This is a change/broadeninh of identity since in Turkey the emphasis laid more laid on freedom of press, expression and religion.

December 20th – Anonymous exposes the personal information of police officers who have evicted OWS protesters; John Adler, president of the Federal Law Enforcement Officers Association, said that revealing such information might allow criminals to seek retribution against police. Clearly this kind of actions are not supported by most people of the occupy movement.

Achievements Rising Consciousness: thanks to the mainstream media getting involved a lot more people are aware that our economic system favors the wealthy, it is the 99% versus the 1%. Their main problem is with the influence of financial capitalism on government, not on capitalism as such (Castells, 2012).

Appendix II: The Mexican Zapatistas Case
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zapatista_Army_of_National_Liberation#2005.E2.80.932013_activities

Focus
1994

Organizers:
Januaryy 1st – an estimated 3,000 armed Zapatista insurgents under Subcommandante Marcos seized towns and cities in Chiapas, including Ocosingo, Las Margaritas, Huixtán, Oxchuc, Rancho Nuevo, Altamirano, and Chanal. They call themselves the Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN).
January 2nd – The next day Mexican army forces counterattacked, and a fierce fighting broke out in and around the market of Ocosingo. The Zapatista forces took heavy casualties and retreated from the city into the surrounding jungle.

Mavens:
January 12th – The armed clashes in Chiapas ended with a ceasefire arranged by the Catholic diocese of San Cristóbal de las Casas under Bishop Samuel Ruiz, a well known liberation theologian who took up the cause of the indigenous of Chiapas. The Zapatistas retained some of the land for little over a year.

1995
February – The Mexican army overran that territory in a surprise breach of ceasefire. Following this offensive, the Zapatista villages were mostly abandoned and the rebels fled to the mountains.

Salesmen:
‘The Zapatistas ability to communicate with the world (http://chiapas.LaNeta.org/index.php), and with Mexican society and to capture the imagination of people and of intellectuals, propelled a local, weak insurgent group to the forefront of world politics’( Castells, 2012).

Mass
1995
Keyplayers:
April – 9th the bases for the Dialog Protocol and the Harmony, Peace with Justice and Dignity agreement Negotiation between the Mexican Government and the EZLN got signed.
April 22th – The Mexican Government and the Zapatistas Peace Talks started in San Andrés Larráinzar. The EZLN rejected the Mexican Government proposal.

Brokers:
June 7th – The Peace Talks Dialogue was initiated and the EZLN agreed with the Alianza Cívica Nacional y the Convención Nacional Democrática to organize a national Consultation for Peace and Democracy. The Bases for the Dialog Protocol was renegotiated, in La Realidad Chiapas (April 9th).
October 12th – Peace Talks Dialog is resumed in San Andres Larráinzar, Chiapas.

1996
Reciprocators:
February – 16th, The Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN) and Mexican government, signed the Agreements of San Andrés. The Terms of Peace and the Constitutional change guaranteed the rights to the Indigenous peoples of Mexico (favoring lots of women and coffee cooperatives – who often support the EZLN).

Openness
Peripheral specialists:

1996
July 27th – With delegates from 42 countries, the EZLN organized the First Intercontinental Gathering for Humanity and against neoliberal practice.
Between 1996 and 2005 too much happened to be described here. It stays an ongoing struggle. A summary of some important ‘openness’ events, involving numerous supporting people and organizations from all over the world.

2001
Boundary Spanners:
With the coming to power of the new government of President Vicente Fox (the first non-PRI party president of Mexico in over 70 years) in 2001, the Zapatistas marched to Mexico City to present their case to the Mexican Congress. The EZLN rejected the watered-down agreements and created 32 ‘autonomous municipalities’ in Chiapas, thus partially implementing their demands without government support but with some funding from international organizations.

2005
June 28th – The Zapatistas presented the ‘Sixth Declaration of the Lacandon Jungle’ declaring their principles and vision for Mexico and the world. This declaration reiterates the support for the (Mayan) indigenous peoples, who make up roughly one-third of the population of Chiapas, and extends the cause to include ‘all the exploited and dispossessed of Mexico’. It also expresses the movement’s sympathy to the international alter-globalization movement and offers to provide material aid to those in Cuba, Bolivia, Ecuador, and elsewhere, with whom they make common cause.